The website of the ICOH Committee on Shiftwork and Working Time, a committee of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH)

Fatigue in transport

A list collected by SINET-Members 2014/02. Collected by Ross Owen Phillips.

Road – truck


Australian Government (2000) Beyond the Midnight Oil: An Inquiry into Managing Fatigue in Transport, House of Representatives Transport Committee, Australian Government

NTC Australia. Basic Fatigue management (BFM) Standards ISBN 1 291168 79 X

Moore-Ede M., Heitmann A., Dawson T. & Guttkuhn R.(2005) Truckload Driver Accident,Injury and Turnover Rates Reduced by Fatigue Risk-Informed Performance-Based Safety Program. Transport Canada: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Fatigue Management in Transportation Operations, September 2005, Seattle.

 (in Mar ‘10)

Noce, F.; Tufik, S.; De Mello, M. T. (2008). Professional drivers and working time: journey span, rest, and accidents. Sleep Science 1 (July), 20-26

Moreno, C. R. C.; Matuzaki, L.; Carvalho, F.; Alves, R.; Pasqua, I.; Lorenzi-Filho, G. (2003). Truck drivers sleep-wake time arrangements. Biological Rhythm Research

Moreno, C. R. C.; Carvalho, F. A.; Lorenzi, C.; Matuzaki, L. S.; Prezotti, S.; Bighetti, P.; Louzada, F. M.; Lorenzi-Filho, G. (2004). High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Truck Drivers Estimated by the Berlin Questionnaire: Prevalence and Associated Factors. Chronobiology International 21 (6), 871-879

van Dongen, H. P. A.; Mollicone, D. J. (2014). Field study on the efficacy of the new restart provision for hours of service; Sleep and Performance Research Center, Washington State University and Pulsar Informatics: Washington DC, 2014

Department for Transport, 2010a. Road Safety Research Report No 110  Fatigue Risk Management Systems: A Review of the Literature and

Department for Transport, 2010b. Road Safety Research Report No. 120. Interviews with operators, regulators and researchers with experience of implementing Fatigue Risk Management Systems. Available at

Albuquerque, A.; Marqueze, E.; Rodacki, A.; Lemos, L.; Lorenzi-Filho, G.; Louzada, F.; Moreno, C. (2011). Can postural control performance be an indicator of truck drivers’ sleep deprivation? Biological Rhythm Research 43 (6), 663-670.

de Pinho, R. S. N.; Silva-Junior, F. P.; Bastos, J. P. C.; Maia, W. S.; De Mello, M. T.; de Bruin, V. M. S.; de Bruin, F. C. (2006). Hypersomnolence and accidents in truck drivers: a cross-sectional study. Chronobiology International 23 (5), 1-9

De Mello, M. T.; Narcisco, F. V.; Tufik, S.; Paiva, T.; Spence, D. W.; BaHammam, A. S.; Verster, J. C.; Pandi-Perumal, S. R. (2013). Sleep disorders as a cause of motor vehicle collisions. International Journal of Preventitive Medicine 4 (3), 246-257

Howard, M. E.; Jackson, M. L.; Swann, P.; Berlowitz, D. J.; Grunstein, R. R.; Pierce, R. J. (2013). Deterioration in driving performance during sleep deprivation is similar in professional and nonprofessional drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention 15 (2), 132-7

Howard, M. E.; Jackson, M. L.; Berlowitz, D.; O’Donoghue, F.; Swann, P.; Westlake, J.; Wilkinson, V.; Pierce, R. J. (2014). Specific sleepiness symptoms are indicators of performance impairment during sleep deprivation. Accident Analysis & Prevention 62 (0), 1-8

Howard, M. E.; Desai, A. V.; Grunstein, R. R.; Hukins, C.; Armstrong, J. G.; Joffe, D.; Swann, P.; Campbell, D. A.; Pierce, R. J. (2004). Sleepiness, Sleep-disordered Breathing, and Accident Risk Factors in Commercial Vehicle Drivers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 170 (9), 1014-1021

Miller, J. C. (2013). Shiftwork: An Annotated Bibliography. Smashwords. (  Contains many highway studies.


Road – bus and tram


Pokorny, M.L.I., Blom, D.H.J.and van Leeuwen, P. (1981). Analysis of accident data (from bus drivers) – an alternative approach.     (I) pp. 271-278    (II) pp.279-286 In: A. Reinberg, N. Vieux and P. Andlauer (Eds.): Night and shift work. Biological and social aspects, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1981

Knauth, P., Minssen, H., Brinkmann, A., Chwalisz-Konieczka, M., Feitner, P., Fidorra,J.,Gauderer, P., und Hornberger, S. (1999). Betriebs- und mitarbeiterbezogene Dienstplangestaltung. In: BG-Bahnen – Berufsgenossenschaft der Sraßen-, U-Bahnen und Eisenbahnen (Hrsg.), Werkstattberichte, Wissenschaft + Technik, WB 20, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für Neue, Wissenschaft GmbH, Bremerhaven 1999.

Gauderer, P. and Knauth (2000). P. Individualized duty rotas in public local transport. In: Hornberger, S., Knauth, P., Costa, G. and Folkard, S, (eds). Shiftwork in the 21st Century, pp.333-338. Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt/M., Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien.

P. C. Gauderer and P. Knauth. (2004). Pilot study with individualized duty rotas in public transport     Le Travail Humain, Tome 67, 1, 87-100, 2004.

Kundi, M., J. Gärtner, and J. Sprenger. Accidents in bus and tram drivers - length of duty and time of day effects. in 17th Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time. 2005. Hoofddorp, NL.

de Mello, M. T.; de Azeredo Bittencourt, L. R.; de Cassia Ferreira Cunha, A.; Esteves, M.; Tufik, S. (2009). Sleep and transit in Brazil: new legislation. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 5 (2), 164-166

Mello, M. T.; Santana, M. G.; Souza, L. M.; Oliveira, P. C. S.; Ventura, M. L.; Stampi, C.; Tufik, S. (2000). Sleep patterns and sleep-related complaints of Brazilian interstate bus drivers. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 33, 71-77

Santos, E. H. R.; De Mello, M. T.; Pradella-Hallinan, M.; Luchesi, L.; Pires, M. L. N.; Tufik, S. (2004). Sleep and sleepiness in Brazilian shift-working bus drivers. Chronobiology International 21 (6), 881-888


Train and underground

LUL (2007) Integration of Human Factors into Systems Development, London Underground Ltd, Standard 1-217 v. A1, Oct 2007, LUL/WN/00834

Rutenfranz, J., Knauth, P., Hildebrandt, G. und Rohmert,W (1974). Nacht- und Schichtarbeit von Triebfahrzeugführern. 1, Mitt.: Untersuchungen über die tägliche Arbeitszeit und die übrige Tagesaufteilung. Int. Arch. Arbeitsmed.32,243-259 (1974)

Rutenfranz, J., Rohmert, W., Hildebrandt, G. und Knauth, P (1975). Untersuchungen zur täglichen Arbeitszeit von Triebfahrzeugführern der Deutschen Bundesbahn. In: G. Lehnert, D. Szadkowski und H. J. Weber (Hrsg.): 14. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft  für Arbeitsmedizin e. V. in Hamburg, S. 183-189. A. W. Gentner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1975

Miller, J. C. (2013). Shiftwork: An Annotated Bibliography. Smashwords. (  Contains 8 rail studies.

Development of Fatigue Risk Index for shiftworkers in UK rail, by Folkard et al:

RSSB Research Report T059, Human factors study of fatigue and shift work. Available at

RSSB Research Report T699, Fatigue and shift work for freight locomotive drivers and contract trackworkers. Available at

Kecklund, G.; Åkerstedt, T.; Ingre, M.; Söderström, M. (1999). Train drivers' working conditions and their impact on safety, stress and sleepiness: a literature review, analyses of accidents and schedules; National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health (IPM), Department of Public Health Sciences, Division for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm.

Koyama, R. G.; Esteves, A. M.; Silva, L. O.; Lira, F. S.; Bittencourt, L. R. A.; Tufik, S.; De Mello, M. T. (2012). Prevalence of and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Brazilian railroad workers. Sleep Medicine 13, 1028-1032



ABS (2001) Crew Habitability on Ships, American Bureau of Shipping, Dec 2001

Calhoun S.R (LT) & Lamb T. (1999) Human Factors in Ship Design: Preventing and Reducing Shipboard Operator Fatigue, University of Michigan Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering U.S. Coast Guard Research Project

MCA (2010)  “The Human Element - a guide to human behaviour in the shipping industry” Sponsored by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, BP Shipping, Teekay Marine Services and the Standard P&I Club. Authored by Dik Gregory and Paul Shanahan Crown Copyright 2010.

Parker A.W., Hubinger L.M., Green S., Sargaent L. & Boyd R. (1997) A Survey of the Health, Stress and Fatigue of Australian Seafarers. Canberra: Australian Maritime Safety Authority

Project HORIZON Consortium - Project HORIZON-A Wake-up Call. EU 7th Framework Programme 2012.

Smith A., Allen P. & Wadsworth E. (2006) Seafarer Fatigue: The Cardiff Research Programme, Centre for Occupational & Health Psychology, Cardiff University

Maritime New Zealand, Fatigue Advisor Resource PO Box 27006, Wellington 6141, New Zealand

US Coast Guard Research and Development Center US Coast Guard Guide for the Management of Crew Endurance Risk factors

International Maritime Organisation MSC/Circ.1014 Guidance on Fatigue Mitigation and Management   and

Fatigue In Ferry Crews: A Pilot Study (1998) Louise Reyner, Sleep Research Group, Loughborough University Stuart Baulk, Seafarers International Research Centre

Condon, R., Colquhoun, W. P., Flügge, R., Knauth, P., Fletcher, N. and Eickhoff, S. (1986). Circadian variation in performance and alertness under different work routines on ships In: M. Haider, M. Koller and R. Cervinka (eds.): Night and Shiftwork: Longterm effects and their prevention. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Night and Shiftwork, Igls, Austria 1986, pp. 277-284 Lang Verlag, Frankfurt/M., Bern, New York, 1986

Knauth, P., Plett, R., Flügge, R., Condon, R., DeVol, D., Fletcher, N and Eickhoff, S. (same book as above) Sleep duration and subjective ratings of sleep quality determined by a permanent watchkeeping system. pp. 293-300

Knauth, P., Condon, R., Colquhoun, W. P., Plett, R., Schmidt, K. and Rutenfranz, J. Alertness of watchkeeping personnel during long distance ship voyages. In: J. P. Leonhard (ed.): Vigilance: Methods, Models, and Regulation. Studies in industrial and organizational psychology,

Colquhoun, W. P., Rutenfranz, J., Goethe, H., Neidhart, B., Condon, R., Plett, R. and Knauth, P.     (1988). Work at sea: a study of sleep, and circadian rhythms in physiological and psychological functions, in watchkeepers on merchant vessels. I. Watchkeeping on board ships: a methodological approach. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 60, 321-329 (1988)

Rutenfranz, J., Plett, R., Knauth, P., Condon, R., DeVol, D., Fletcher, N, Eickhoff, S., Schmidt, K.-H.,

Donis, R. and Colquhoun, W. P. (1988). Work at sea: a study of sleep and of circadian rhythms in physiological and psychological functions, in watchkeepers on merchant vessels II. Sleep duration and subjective ratings of sleep quality. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 60, 331-339 (1988)

Plett, R., Colquhoun, W. P., Condon, R., Knauth, P., Rutenfranz, J. and Eickhoff, S. (1988). Work at sea: a study of sleep, and of circadian rhythms in physiological and psychological      functions, in watchkeepers on merchant vessels. iii. Rhythms in physiological functions. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 60, 395-403 (1988)

Condon, R., Colquhoun, W. P., Knauth, P., Plett, R., Neidhardt, B., DeVol, D., Eickhoff, S. and Rutenfranz, J. (1988) Work at sea:  a study of sleep, and of circadian rhythms in physiological and psychological functions, in watchkeepers on merchant vessels. V. Effects of time zone crossings. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 61, 39-49 (1988)

Colquhoun, P., Chapter. 8, Shiftwork at sea. In: Colquhoun, W. P., Costa, G., Folkard, S. and Knauth, P. (eds.) Shiftwork: problems and solutions, pp. 175-218. Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt/M., Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien 1996

Houtman, I.; Miedema, M.; Jettinghoff, K.; Starren, A.; Heinrich, J.; Gort, J.; Wulder, J.; Wubbolts, S. (2005). Fatigue in the shipping industry; TNO: Hoofddorp, December 28th 2005

Starren, A.; van Hooff, M.; Houtman, I.; Buys, N.; Rost-Ernst, A.; Groenhuis, S.; Janssens, R.; Dawson, D. (2008). Preventing and managing fatigue in the shipping industry; TNO: Hoofddorp, The Netherlands.









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