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Research Article: Overtime Work as a Predictor of Major Depressive Episode: A 5-Year Follow-Up of the Whitehall II Study

26 Jan 2012 6:30 PM | Deleted user
"Overtime Work as a Predictor of Major Depressive Episode: A 5-Year Follow-Up of the Whitehall II Study" by Marianna Virtanen, Stephen A. Stansfeld, Rebecca Fuhrer Jane E. Ferrie and Mika Kivimäki. 

Abstract: 

Background 
The association between overtime work and depression is still unclear. This study examined the association between overtime work and the onset of a major depressive episode (MDE). 

Methodology/Principal Findings 
Prospective cohort study with a baseline examination of working hours, psychological morbidity (an indicator of baseline depression) and depression risk factors in 1991–1993 and a follow-up of major depressive episode in 1997–1999 (mean follow-up 5.8 years) among British civil servants (the Whitehall II study; 1626 men, 497 women, mean age 47 years at baseline). Onset of 12-month MDE was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at follow-up. In prospective analysis of participants with no psychological morbidity at baseline, the odds ratio for a subsequent major depressive episode was 2.43 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 5.30) times higher for those working 11+ hours a day compared to employees working 7–8 hours a day, when adjusted for socio-demographic factors at baseline. Further adjustment for chronic physical disease, smoking, alcohol use, job strain and work-related social support had little effect on this association (odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 5.65). 

Conclusions/Significance 
Data from middle-aged civil servants suggest that working long hours of overtime may predispose to major depressive episodes.
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